Enhanced-Oil Recovery (EOR) evaluations focused on asset acquisition or rejuvenation involve a combination of complex decisions, using different data sources. EOR projects have been traditionally associated with high CAPEX and OPEX, as well as high financial risk, which tend to limit the number of EOR projects launched. In this book, the authors propose workflows for EOR evaluations that account for different volumes and quality of information. This flexible workflow has been successfully applied to oil property evaluations and EOR feasibility studies in many oil reservoirs. The methodology associated with the workflow relies on traditional (look-up tables, XY correlations, etc.) and more advanced (data mining for analog reservoir search and geology indicators) screening methods, emphasizing identification of analogues to support decision making. The screening phase is combined with analytical or simplified numerical simulations to estimate full-field performance by using reservoir data-driven segmentation procedures. Natural gas is the most energy-efficient fossil fuel; it offers important energysaving benefits when it is used instead of oil or coal. Although the primary use of natural gas is as a fuel, it is also a source of hydrocarbons for petrochemical feedstocks and a major source of elemental sulfur, an important industrial chemical. Its popularity as an energy source is expected to grow substantially in the future because natural gas can help achieve two important energy goals for the twenty-first century: providing the sustainable energy supplies and services needed for social and economic development and reducing adverse impacts on global climate and the environment in general. Natural gas consumption and trade have been growing steadily over the past two decades, and natural gas has strengthened its position in the world energy mix. Although natural gas demand declined in 2009, as a result of the economic slowdown, it is expected to resume growth in both emerging and traditional markets in the coming decades. Such increase in the near future will be driven because of additional demand in current uses, primarily power generation. There is yet little overlap between the use of natural gas and oil in all large markets. However, there are certain moves in the horizon, including the electrifying of transportation, that will push natural gas use to even higher levels. This chapter gives the reader an introduction to natural gas by describing the origin and composition of natural gas, gas sources, phase behavior and properties, and transportation methods.
© Copyright 2016. Mohammad Sadegh Adib Sereshki